Patriarchs of Holy Mother Church
The earlier patriarchs are those who lived before the flood, and those who lived between that event and the birth of Abraham. In the cases of some of them, a difficulty is presented in their extraordinary longevity.
 
They are therefore founders and chief men of a clan. Thus of the Semites from Adam to Therah inclusively, there were nineteen patriarchs. With Abraham there begins another list of patriarchs of the Abrahamites. First there are the three great patriarchs, to whom all render special praise: Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Our Lord gives these three special honor. Of Jacob sprang twelve sons, and twelve patriarchs, founders of the race of Israel. In Acts, 2, 29 David is called a patriarch, as a token of signal honor, and because he founded, the Davidic dynasty of which is Christ.
 

St. Gregory the Great - Father of the Early Church
 
Fathers of the Catholic Church

    Fathers of the Church are saintly writers of the first centuries of the Christian era, whom the Catholic Church acknowledges as witnesses of her faith.  To be numbered among the Fathers of the Church, four qualities are required of write.  First, you must have lived when the Church was in her youth; hence St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) is generally regarded as the last father in the West, St. John Damascene (d.754), in the East. 

    Secondly, he must have lived a saintly life.  Thirdly, his writings must not only be free from heresies, but also excel in the explanation and defense of Catholic doctrine.

    Lastly, his writings must bear the seal of the Churches approval thou the majority of the Fathers were bishops, yet this is not true of all of them.  St. Jerome was a simple priest to the end of his days, St. Ephraem a deacon, St. Justin a layman.

    All Fathers have not been proclaimed doctors of the Church.  In matters of faith and moral, the consent of the Fathers has always been held in high esteem by the Church.  What they unanimously teach to be of faith, is of faith; what they unanimously reject as heretical, is heretical.

    Even the logical conclusions which they unanimously draw from the articles of faith, furnish us with a certain theological argument.  Their authority is due not only to the facts that they were saints or bishops or eminent scholars and lived at a time when Christ's revelation was still fresh in the minds of men, but primarily to the approbation of the Church.  But Christ said of the Apostles, "He that hearth you, hearth me," the Church says in manner of the Fathers.   They are the mouthpiece of the infallible teaching of the Church, and the Church acknowledges them as witnesses of her own faith.  Hence, when anathematizing new heresies or defining new dogmas, the Councils appeal to the consent of the Fathers.  The Council of Ephesus (in 431) declared in its first session that it would define nothing save what had been held unanimously by the ancient and holy Fathers.  This approbation of the Church gives added authority even to the Fathers, considered singly thou in varying degrees period.

    A general approbation gives to a saintly writer of the first centuries implies that his doctrine in general is orthodox and worthy of recommendation.  Sometimes, however, a certain Father's doctrine receives a special approbation as being exceptionally solid; such is St. Augustine's fundamental doctrine on grace.

    Lastly, the highest degree of ecclesiastical approbation is reached when the Church takes the very doctrine of a Father and embodies it in her own official pronouncements, as in the case of the St. Cyril of Alexandria, whose twelve anathematisms against Nestorius were adopted by the Councils of Ephesus (431).  -C.E.; Agius, Tradition and the Church

bullet The Appeal to the Fathers
bullet Classification of Patristic Writings
bullet Apostolic Fathers and the Second Century
bullet Third Century
bullet Fourth Century
bullet Fifth Century
bullet Sixth Century
bullet Characteristics of Patristic Writings
bullet Commentaries
bullet Preachers
bullet Writers
bullet East and West
bullet Theology
bullet Discipline, Liturgy, Ascetics
bullet Historical Materials
bullet Patristic Study

    The word Father is used in the New Testament to mean a teacher of spiritual things, by whose means the soul of man is born again into the likeness of Christ: "For if you have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet not many fathers. For in Christ Jesus, by the gospel, I have begotten you. Wherefore I beseech you, be ye followers of me, as I also am of Christ" (1 Corinthians 4:15, 16; cf. Galatians 4:19). The first teachers of Christianity seem to be collectively spoken of as "the Fathers" (2 Peter 3:4).

    Thus St. Irenaeus defines that a teacher is a father, and a disciple is a son (iv, 41,2), and so says Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I, i, 1). A bishop is emphatically a "father in Christ", both because it was he, in early times, who baptized all his flock, and because he is the chief teacher of his church. But he is also regarded by the early Fathers, such as Hegesippus, Irenaeus, and Tertullian as the recipient of the tradition of his predecessors in the see, and consequently as the witness and representative of the faith of his Church before Catholicity and the world. Hence the expression "the Fathers" comes naturally to be applied to the holy bishops of a preceding age, whether of the last generation or further back, since they are the parents at whose knee the Church of today was taught her belief. It is also applicable in an eminent way to bishops sitting in council, "the Fathers of Nicaea", "the Fathers of Trent". Thus Fathers have learnt from Fathers, and in the last resort from the Apostles, who are sometimes called Fathers in this sense: "They are your Fathers", says St. Leo, of the Princes of the Apostles, speaking to the Romans; St. Hilary of Arles calls them sancti patres; Clement of Alexandria says that his teachers, from Greece, Ionia, Coele-Syria, Egypt, the Orient, Assyria, Palestine, respectively, had handed on to him the tradition of blessed teaching from Peter, and James, and John, and Paul, receiving it "as son from father".

    It follows that, as our own Fathers are the predecessors who have taught us, so the Fathers of the whole Church are especially the earlier teachers, who instructed her in the teaching of the Apostles, during her infancy and first growth. It is difficult to define the first age of the Church, or the age of the Fathers. It is a common habit to stop the study of the early Church at the Council of Chalcedon in 451. "The Fathers" must undoubtedly include, in the West, St. Gregory the Great (d. 604), and in the East, St. John Damascene (d. about 754). It is frequently said that St. Bernard (d. 1153) was the last of the Fathers, and Migne's "Patrologia Latina" extends to Innocent III, halting only on the verge of the thirteenth century, while his "Patrologia Graeca" goes as far as the Council of Florence (1438-9). These limits are evidently too wide, It will be best to consider that the great merit of St. Bernard as a writer lies in his resemblance in style and matter to the greatest among the Fathers, in spite of the difference of period. St. Isidore of Seville (d. 636) and the Venerable Bede (d. 735) are to be classed among the Fathers, but they may be said to have been born out of due time, as St. Theodore the Studite was in the East.

 

The Fathers of the Church

Alexander of Alexandria [SAINT]
  - 
Epistles on the Arian Heresy and the Deposition of Arius

Alexander of Lycopolis
  - 
Of the Manicheans

Ambrose (340-397) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
On the Christian Faith (De fide)
  - 
On the Holy Spirit
  - 
On the Mysteries
  - 
On Repentance
  - 
On the Duties of the Clergy
  - 
Concerning Virgins
  - 
Concerning Widows
  - 
On the Death of Satyrus
  - 
Memorial of Symmachus
  - 
Sermon against Auxentius
  - 
Letters

Aphrahat/Aphraates (c. 280-367)
  - 
Demonstrations

Archelaus
  - 
Acts of the Disputation with the Heresiarch Manes

Aristides the Philosopher
  - 
The Apology

Arnobius
  - 
Against the Heathen

Athanasius [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Against the Heathen
  - 
On the Incarnation of the Word
  - 
Deposition of Arius
  - 
On Luke 10:22 (Matthew 11:27)
  - 
Circular Letter
  - 
Apologia Contra Arianos
  - 
De Decretis
  - 
De Sententia Dionysii
  - 
Vita S. Antoni (Life of St. Anthony)
  - 
Ad Episcopus Aegypti et Libyae
  - 
Apologia ad Constantium
  - 
Apologia de Fuga
  - 
Historia Arianorum
  - 
Four Discourses Against the Arians
  - 
De Synodis
  - 
Tomus ad Antiochenos
  - 
Ad Afros Epistola Synodica
  - 
Historia Acephala
  - 
Letters

Athenagoras
  - 
A Plea for the Christians
  - 
The Resurrection of the Dead

Augustine of Hippo [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Confessions
  - 
Letters
  - 
City of God
  - 
Christian Doctrine
  - 
On the Holy Trinity
  - 
The Enchiridion
  - 
On the Catechising of the Uninstructed
  - 
On Faith and the Creed
  - 
Concerning Faith of Things Not Seen
  - 
On the Profit of Believing
  - 
On the Creed: A Sermon to Catechumens
  - 
On Continence
  - 
On the Good of Marriage
  - 
On Holy Virginity
  - 
On the Good of Widowhood
  - 
On Lying
  - 
To Consentius: Against Lying
  - 
On the Work of Monks
  - 
On Patience
  - 
On Care to be Had For the Dead
  - 
On the Morals of the Catholic Church
  - 
On the Morals of the Manichaeans
  - 
On Two Souls, Against the Manichaeans
  - 
Acts or Disputation Against Fortunatus the Manichaean
  - 
Against the Epistle of Manichaeus Called Fundamental
  - 
Reply to Faustus the Manichaean
  - 
Concerning the Nature of Good, Against the Manichaeans
  - 
On Baptism, Against the Donatists
  - 
Answer to Letters of Petilian, Bishop of Cirta
  - 
Merits and Remission of Sin, and Infant Baptism
  - 
On the Spirit and the Letter
  - 
On Nature and Grace
  - 
On Man's Perfection in Righteousness
  - 
On the Proceedings of Pelagius
  - 
On the Grace of Christ, and on Original Sin
  - 
On Marriage and Concupiscence
  - 
On the Soul and its Origin
  - 
Against Two Letters of the Pelagians
  - 
On Grace and Free Will
  - 
On Rebuke and Grace
  - 
The Predestination of the Saints/Gift of Perseverance
  - 
Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount
  - 
The Harmony of the Gospels
  - 
Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament
  - 
Tractates on the Gospel of John
  - 
Homilies on the First Epistle of John
  - 
Soliloquies
  - 
The Enarrations, or Expositions, on the Psalms

Bardesanes (154-222)
  - 
The Book of the Laws of Various Countries

Barnabas [SAINT]
  - 
Epistle of Barnabas

Basil the Great [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
De Spiritu Sancto
  - 
Nine Homilies of Hexaemeron
  - 
Letters

Caius
  - 
Fragments

Clement of Alexandria
  - 
Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved?
  - 
Exhortation to the Heathen
  - 
The Instructor
  - 
The Stromata, or Miscellanies
  - 
Fragments

Clement of Rome [SAINT]
  - 
First Epistle
  - 
Second Epistle [SPURIOUS]
  - 
Two Epistles Concerning Virginity [SPURIOUS]
  - 
Recognitions [SPURIOUS]

Commodianus
  - 
Writings

Cyprian of Carthage [SAINT]
  - 
The Life and Passion of Cyprian
  - 
The Epistles of Cyprian
  - 
The Treatises of Cyprian
  - 
The Seventh Council of Carthage
  - 
Treatises Attributed to Cyprian

Cyril of Jerusalem [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Catechetical Lectures

Dionysius of Rome [SAINT]
  - 
Against the Sabellians

Dionysius the Great
  - 
Extant Fragments
  - 
Exegetical Fragments

Ephraim the Syrian (306-373) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Nisibene Hymns
  - Miscellaneous Hymns --
On the Nativity of Christ in the Flesh, For the Feast of the Epiphany, and On the Faith ("The Pearl")
  - Homilies --
On Our Lord, On Admonition and Repentance, and On the Sinful Woman

Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 265-c. 340)
  - 
Church History
  - 
Life of Constantine
  - 
Oration of Constantine "to the Assembly of the Saints"
  - 
Oration in Praise of Constantine
  - 
Letter on the Council of Nicaea

Gennadius of Marseilles
  - 
Illustrious Men (Supplement to Jerome)

Gregory the Great, Pope (c. 540-604) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Pastoral Rule
  - 
Register of Letters

Gregory Nazianzen [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Orations
  - 
Letters

Gregory of Nyssa [SAINT]
  - 
Against Eunomius
  - 
Answer to Eunomius' Second Book
  - 
On the Holy Spirit (Against the Followers of Macedonius)
  - 
On the Holy Trinity, and of the Godhead of the Holy Spirit (To Eustathius)
  - 
On "Not Three Gods" (To Ablabius)
  - 
On the Faith (To Simplicius)
  - 
On Virginity
  - 
On Infants' Early Deaths
  - 
On Pilgrimages
  - 
On the Making of Man
  - 
On the Soul and the Resurrection
  - 
The Great Catechism
  - 
Funeral Oration on Meletius
  - 
On the Baptism of Christ (Sermon for the Day of Lights)
  - 
Letters

Gregory Thaumaturgus [SAINT]
  - 
A Declaration of Faith
  - 
A Metaphrase of the Book of Ecclesiastes
  - 
Canonical Epistle
  - 
The Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen
  - 
A Sectional Confession of Faith
  - 
On the Trinity
  - 
Twelve Topics on the Faith
  - 
On the Subject of the Soul
  - 
Four Homilies
  - 
On All the Saints
  - 
On Matthew 6:22-23

Hermas
  - 
The Pastor (or "The Shepherd")

Hilary of Poitiers [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
On the Councils, or the Faith of the Easterns
  - 
On the Trinity
  - 
Homilies on the Psalms

Hippolytus [SAINT]
  - 
The Refutation of All Heresies
  - 
The Extant Works and Fragments of Hippolytus: Exegetical
  - 
Expository Treatise Against the Jews
  - 
Against Plato, On the Cause of the Universe
  - 
Against the Heresy of Noetus
  - 
Discourse on the Holy Theophany
  - 
The Antichrist
  - 
Appendix

Ignatius of Antioch [SAINT]
  - 
Epistle to the Ephesians
  - 
Epistle to the Magnesians
  - 
Epistle to the Trallians
  - 
Epistle to the Romans
  - 
Epistle to the Philadelphians
  - 
Epistle to the Smyraeans
  - 
Epistle to Polycarp
  - 
The Martyrdom of Ignatius

Irenaeus of Lyons [SAINT]
  - 
Adversus haereses
  - 
Fragments from the Lost Writings of Irenaeus

Jerome [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Letters
  - 
The Perpetual Virginity of Blessed Mary
  - 
To Pammachius Against John of Jerusalem
  - 
The Dialogue Against the Luciferians
  - 
The Life of Malchus, the Captive Monk
  - 
The Life of S. Hilarion
  - 
The Life of Paulus the First Hermit
  - 
Against Jovinianus
  - 
Against Vigilantius
  - 
Against the Pelagians
  - 
Preface to the Chronicle of Eusebius
  - 
De Viris Illustribus (Illustrious Men)
  - 
Apology for himself against the Books of Rufinus

John of Damascus [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Exposition of the Faith

John Cassian (c. 360-c. 435)
  - 
Institutes
  - 
Conferences
  - 
On the Incarnation of the Lord (Against Nestorius)

John Chrysostom [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Homilies on the Gospel of St. Matthew
  - 
Homilies on Acts
  - 
Homilies on Romans
  - 
Homilies on First Corinthians
  - 
Homilies on Second Corinthians
  - 
Homilies on Ephesians
  - 
Homilies on Philippians
  - 
Homilies on Colossians
  - 
Homilies on First Thessalonians
  - 
Homilies on Second Thessalonians
  - 
Homilies on First Timothy
  - 
Homilies on Second Timothy
  - 
Homilies on Titus
  - 
Homilies on Philemon
  - 
Commentary on Galatians
  - 
Homilies on the Gospel of John
  - 
Homilies on the Epistle to the Hebrews
  - 
Homilies on the Statues
  - 
No One Can Harm the Man Who Does Not Injure Himself
  - 
Two Letters to Theodore After His Fall
  - 
Letter to a Young Widow
  - 
Homily on St. Ignatius
  - 
Homily on St. Babylas
  - 
Homily Concerning "Lowliness of Mind"
  - 
Instructions to Catechumens
  - 
Three Homilies on the Power of Satan
  - 
Homily on the Passage "Father, if it be possible . . ."
  - 
Homily on the Paralytic Lowered Through the Roof
  - 
Homily on the Passage "If your enemy hunger, feed him."
  - 
Homily Against Publishing the Errors of the Brethren
  - 
First Homily on Eutropius
  - 
Second Homily on Eutropius (After His Captivity)
  - 
Four Letters to Olympias
  - 
Letter to Some Priests of Antioch
  - 
Correspondence with Pope Innocent I
  - 
On the Priesthood

Julius Africanus
  - 
Extant Writings

Justin Martyr [SAINT]
  - 
First Apology
  - 
Second Apology
  - 
Dialogue with Trypho
  - 
Hortatory Address to the Greeks
  - 
On the Sole Government of God
  - 
Fragments of the Lost Work on the Resurrection
  - 
Miscellaneous Fragments from Lost Writings
  - 
Martyrdom of Justin, Chariton, and other Roman Martyrs
  - 
Discourse to the Greeks

Lactantius
  - 
The Divine Institutes
  - 
The Epitome of the Divine Institutes
  - 
On the Anger of God
  - 
On the Workmanship of God
  - 
Of the Manner In Which the Persecutors Died
  - 
Fragments of Lactantius
  - 
The Phoenix
  - 
A Poem on the Passion of the Lord

Leo the Great, Pope (c. 395-461) [SAINT] [DOCTOR]
  - 
Sermons
  - 
Letters

Malchion
  - 
Extant Writings

Mar Jacob (452-521)
  - 
Canticle on Edessa
  - 
Homily on Habib the Martyr
  - 
Homily on Guria and Shamuna

Mathetes
  - 
Epistle to Diognetus

Methodius
  - 
The Banquet of the Ten Virgins
  - 
Concerning Free Will
  - 
From the Discourse on the Resurrection
  - 
Fragments
  - 
Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna
  - 
Oration on the Psalms
  - 
Three Fragments from the Homily on the Cross and Passion of Christ
  - 
Some Other Fragments

Minucius Felix
  - 
Octavius

Moses of Chorene (c. 400-c. 490)
  - 
History of Armenia

Novatian
  - 
Treatise Concerning the Trinity
  - 
On the Jewish Meats

Origen
  - 
Origen de Principiis
  - 
Africanus to Origen
  - 
Origen to Africanus
  - 
Origen to Gregory
  - 
Origen Against Celsus
  - 
Letter of Origen to Gregory
  - 
Commentary on the Gospel of John
  - 
Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew

Pamphilus [SAINT]
  - 
Extant Writings

Papias [SAINT]
  - 
Fragments

Peter of Alexandria [SAINT]
  - 
The Genuine Acts of Peter
  - 
The Canonical Epistle
  - 
Fragments

Polycarp [SAINT]
  - 
Epistle to the Philippians
  - 
The Martyrdom of Polycarp

Rufinus
  - 
Apology
  - 
Commentary on the Apostles' Creed
  - 
Prefaces

Socrates Scholasticus (c. 379-c. 450)
  - 
Ecclesiastical History

Sozomen (c. 375-c. 447)
  - 
Ecclesiastical History

Sulpitius Severus (c. 363-c. 420)
  - 
On the Life of St. Martin
  - Letters --
Genuine and Dubious
  - 
Dialogues
  - 
Sacred History

Tatian
  - 
Address to the Greeks
  - 
Fragments
  - 
The Diatessaron

Tertullian
  - 
The Apology
  - 
On Idolatry
  - 
De Spectaculis (The Shows)
  - 
De Corona (The Chaplet)
  - 
To Scapula
  - 
Ad Nationes
  - 
(A Fragment)
  - 
An Answer to the Jews
  - 
The Soul's Testimony
  - 
A Treatise on the Soul
  - 
The Prescription Against Heretics
  - 
Against Marcion
  - 
Against Hermogenes
  - 
Against the Valentinians
  - 
On the Flesh of Christ
  - 
On the Resurrection of the Flesh
  - 
Against Praxeas
  - 
Scorpiace
  - 
Appendix (Against All Heresies)
  - 
On Repentance
  - 
On Baptism
  - 
On Prayer
  - 
Ad Martyras
  - 
The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicity (Sometimes attributed to Tertullian)
  - 
Of Patience
  - 
On the Pallium
  - 
On the Apparel of Women
  - 
On the Veiling of Virgins
  - 
To His Wife
  - 
On Exhortation to Chastity
  - 
On Monogamy
  - 
On Modesty
  - 
On Fasting
  - 
De Fuga in Persecutione

Theodoret
  - 
Counter-Statements to Cyril's 12 Anathemas against Nestorius
  - 
Ecclesiastical History
  - 
Dialogues ("Eranistes" or "Polymorphus")
  - 
Demonstrations by Syllogism
  - 
Letters

Theodotus
  - 
Excerpts

Theophilus
  - 
Theophilus to Autolycus

Venantius
  - 
Poem on Easter

Victorinus [SAINT]
  - 
On the Creation of the World
  - 
Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John

Vincent of Lérins (d. c. 450) [SAINT]
  - 
Commonitory for the Antiquity and Universality of the Catholic Faith

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St. Thomas Aquinas surrounded by the Doctors of the Church

Doctors of the Catholic Church

    Doctors of the Church, writers who received this title from the Church, owing to their eminence in theology and holiness.  They are extolled by the Church not primarily as witnesses of her faith (as are the Fathers), but on account of their brilliant exposition and skillful defense of Catholic doctrine.  Unlike the titles of Doctor subtilis, or, Doctor resolutissimus, Doctor irrefragabilis, which enthusiastic scholars of the Middle Ages bestowed on renowned professors, this title is official.  The first to confer it was Pope Boniface VIII, who in the thirteenth century declared four Fathers the great Doctors of the Latin Church: St. Ambrose, St. Augustine, St. Jerome, St. Gregory the Great.  The next to be declared to be a doctor was St. Thomas Aquinas in 1567.  Since then more than 20 renown theologians, all of them canonized saints, have received the same seal of approval, either from some pope or from the Sacred Congregation of Rites; the latest are St. Peter Canisius and St. John of the Cross, who received this honor from Pope Pius XI.  Owing to their title, the Doctors of the Church enjoy a special authority in the Church, thou not all in the same degree or in the same manner.  As a rule, the range and degree of their authority are set forth in the degree by which the title is deferred.  Thus St. Alphonsus of Liguori is recommended to theologians as master of moral theology, St. Jerome as biblical scholar, St. Bonaventure as eminent and scholastic theology.  Still, their writings are not thereby pronounced infallible throughout, but they are proposed as safe guides, so that their doctrines are to be preferred unless solid reasons favor the opposite. - C.E.; Agius, Tradition and the Church 

    For a person to be proclaimed Doctor of the Church, three requisites are necessary, according to Pope Benedict XIV's well-known definition: an eminent doctrine, a remarkable holiness of life and the declaration by the Supreme Pontiff or by a General Council which has met legitimately.

Following is the list of Doctors of the Church, starting with their name(s), the Pope who proclaimed them and the date on which this occurred:

bullet1-4: Saints Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Gregory the Great: Boniface VIII, September 20, 1295.
bullet5: Saint Thomas Aquinas: Saint Pius V, April 11, 1567. (Dominican)
bullet6-9: Saints Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint John Chrysostom: Saint Pius V, 1568. (Eastern)
bullet10: Saint Bonaventure: Sixtus V, March 14, 1588.
bullet11: Saint Anselm of Canterbury: Clement XI, February 3, 1720.
bullet12: Saint Isidore of Seville: Innocent XIII, April 25, 1722.
bullet13: Saint Peter Chrysologus: Benedict XIII, February 10, 1729.
bullet14: Saint Leo the Great: Benedict XIV, October 15, 1754.
bullet15: Saint Peter Damian: Leo XII, September 27, 1828.
bullet16: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux: Pius VIII, August 20, 1830.
bullet17: Saint Hilaire of Poitiers: Pius IX, May 13, 1851.
bullet18: Saint Alphonsus Liguori: Pius IX, July 7, 1871.
bullet19: Saint Francis of Sales: Pius IX, November 16, 1871.
bullet20-21: Saints Cyril of Alexandria and Cyril of Jerusalem: Leo XIII, July 28, 1882. (Eastern)
bullet22: Saint John Damascene: Leo XIII, August 19, 1890. (Eastern)
bullet23: Saint Bede the Venerable: Leo XIII, November 13, 1899. (Eastern)
bullet24: Saint Ephrem of Syria: Benedict XV, October 5, 1920.
bullet25: Saint Peter Canisius: Pius XI, May 21, 1925.
bullet26: Saint John of the Cross: Pius XI, August 24, 1926.
bullet27: Saint Robert Bellarmine: Pius XI, September 17, 1931.
bullet28: Saint Albert the Great: Pius XI, December 16, 1931. (Dominican)
bullet29: Saint Anthony of Padua: Pius XII, January 16, 1946.